" The American composer Benjamin Lees (1924-2010) wrote: "There are two kinds of composers. I believe that only music which springs out of genuine personal emotion is alive and important.
This was Mode de valeurs et d'intensites (1949), part of four studies in rhythm for piano.Only in the twentieth century have musicologists and other researchers successfully begun to construct a complete musical picture of such sources as the Medieval period, non-Western cultures, and the political and philosophical zeitgeists of all of the many times and cultures.Music in the twentieth century, then, does not draw on one central and contemporary tradition to the exclusion of foreign influence, but, rather, makes use of many much more individualistic origins and inspirations as its "tradition".At most they succeed in focusing attention on to a particular idea, which others may then pursue and develop.Art reaches a more than ephemeral validity only when its creator takes a wider view of tradition than the narrowly revolutionary one. If my stomach doesn't tighten at an idea, then it's not the right idea." Bernard Herrmann (1911-1975), whose musical scores enhance the cinematic content of Psycho, North by Northwest, Vertigo, Citizen Kane and many other fine films, famously said "Musically I count myself an individualist.They may be overlooked as merely 'traditional', and their work not understood for what it is.Because they do not sever all links with the past, as the other kind do, but on the contrary accept the past and try to relate it to the present, their relevance for the present may he questioned.Transposing Instruments How to Write Parts for Transposing Instruments')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"19 | Lesson 20 - Rhythmic Variety Rhythmic Modes Anacrusis Syncopation Dotting & Double DottingÉgal & Inégal Hemiola, Hemiolia or Cross Rhythm Swing Rhythm Syllables')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"20 | Lesson 21 - Phrasing & Articulation Slur & Phrase Tenuto & Staccato Slurs & Staccato Variety of Accents Articulation on Wind Instruments Articulation on Stringed Instruments Articulation and Phrasing on Percussion Instruments Dot & Wedge in Clavichord Music Pedalling on the Piano Table of Dynamic Markings Table of General Musical Markings')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"21 | Lesson 22 - Chords & Cadences Cadences Perfect Cadence Plagal Cadence Imperfect Cadence Interrupted/Deceptive Cadence The Six Four Cadence Feminine Endings Antecedent & Consequent Summary of Cadences')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"22 | Lesson 23 - Ornamentation Introduction Accidentals and Ornamentation Grace Notes Appoggiaturas Nachslag Turns Trills Pralltriller Mordents Vibrato Arpeggiation Divisions')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"24 | Lesson 25 - Notes, Harmonies & Scales Origin of Diatonic and Chromatic Scales Modes Jazz Scales Blues Bebop Scales Pentatonic Scales The Minor Key Problem Altered Chords Neapolitan Sixth Symmetrical Scales Table of Useful Scales Non-Harmonic Notes')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"25 | Lesson 26 - Score Formats Instrumental Ensembles Solos & Parts Keyboards Percussion How to Write Parts for Transposing Instruments Sounding Range of Orchestral Instruments Chart of Sounding Range and Clefs Used Conducting Sample Scores')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"26 | Lesson 27 - Pitch, Temperament & Timbre Pitch History of Musical Pitch Harmonic or Overtone Series Inharmonicity Pythagorean Series Meantone Scale Equal Temperament Just Intonation Naming Intervals Historical Temperaments Temperament and Pitch Calculator Beats and Tuning Information on Temperaments Timbre/Tone Colour Classification of Common Musical Instruments Supplement - Interval Calculator Supplement - Analysis of Temperaments')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"27 | Lesson 28 - Musical Instrument Fingering Charts Woodwind Instruments Band Instruments Brass Instruments Serpent & Ophicleide Baroque Flute Dulcian Recorder Shakuhachi Quena Tin-Whistle Bagpipe')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"28 | Lesson 29 - Musical Instrument Ranges & Names Bowed & Plucked Strings Harp Flutes Clarinets Saxophones Double Reeds Trumpets & Trombones Horns & Tubas Tuned Percussion Voices Recorders Keyboards Viols Instrument Names in Other Languages Instrument Names & Their Abbreviations Orchestral Layout Sounding Range of Orchestral Instruments Chart of Sounding Range and Clefs Used Conducting')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"29 | Lesson 30 - Guitar Tablature & Notation Reading Chord Charts Writing Notes The Origins of Tablature Notation Writing Chords Transposing Chord Names Special Effects Voicing Chords The Lute')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"30 | Lesson 31 - Key Centres The Nature of Tonality Major Keys Minor Keys Triad Progressions Modes Combining Major and Minor Keys Modal Interchange Using Dominants Diminished Seventh Chords Melodic Substitution Reharmonisation Modulation Alan Belkin - General Principles of Harmony')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"34 | Lesson 35 - Music before the 16th Century From Earliest Times Greeks & Romans Early Christian Church Music of the Dark Ages (475-1000)Music of the High Middle Ages (1000-1350)Music of the Late Middle Ages (1350-1500)Music of the Proto-Renaissance')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"35 | Lesson 36 - Music of the 16th Century Early Renaissance Timeline Humanism Music Theory Music Printing The Renaissance and the French Court Origins of Early Opera and Ballet Music in New Spain Sixteenth Century Chinese Operamore in preparation...')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"38 | Lesson 39 - Music of the 19th Century A Survey of 19th Century Music Romanticism Orientalism Nationalism, Folk Song & Primitivism Looking Back - The Early Music Revival Late 19th Century Symbolism19th Century American Music Bringing Back Voices From the 19th Century Performance Practice and Aesthetics of the 19th Century')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"39 | Lesson 40 - Music of the 20th Century Progressing into the 20th Century Neo-Romanticism Breakdown of Tonality Impressionism Neo-Classicism Machine Music Computer Music Twelve Note Method Influences of Jazz Microtonal Music Electronic Music Indeterminacy Minimalism Music Theatre By Eric Salzman Experimental Music Today Summary of Terms & Concepts in 20th Century Music Musical Analysis')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true" Robert Kelley in his article entitled Tradition, the Avant Garde, and Individuality in the Music of Olivier Messiaen: Musical Influences in Méditations sur la mystère de la Sainte-Trinité writes:"A glance at any twentieth-century music textbook will give one the impression that serialism, chance music, electronic music, and the post-modern trends of minimalism and neo-romanticism have seemed to dominate the music of the second half of the twentieth century.However, a more detailed look into the music presented in the texts suggests that the work of most individual composers during the period represents a more eclectic collection of influences that include one or more of these major trends among them, sometimes only during a short period of the composer's productive life.The first are those who are entirely disenchanted with the continued relevance of established methods and past traditions; they therefore seek to do away with them, and to replace them with something else; something fresh, untraditional.The second are those who do not discard past traditions, but seek instead to reinterpret them, and to apply them in a fresh context as they see fit.