In 1538 Nicolas Wynman, German professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book "Colymbetes".His goal was not exercise, but rather to reduce the dangers of drowning.In 1796 a (still existing) swimming club was founded in Upsala, Sweden.Benjamin Franklin is credited with the invention of the swimming fins at the age of ten, in 1716.Nevertheless, the book contained a very good and methodical approach to learning breaststroke, and includes swimming aids like air filled cow bladders, reed bundles, or cork belts. Digby in England also wrote a swimming book, claiming that humans can swim better than fish.In 1603 the first national swimming organization was established in Japan.In 1798 Guts Muts wrote another book "Kleines Lehrbuch der Schwimmkunst zum Selbstunterricht" (Small study book of the art of swimming for self study), recommending the use of a "fishing rod" device to aid in the learning of swimming.
Butterfly was first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952. shows four swimmers who are believed to be swimming a variant of the front crawl. The Etruscans at Tarquinia (Italy) show pictures of swimmers in 600 B. During the night and using a snorkel made from reed, he swam back to the ships and cut them loose. In Japan swimming was one of the noble skills of the Samurai, and historic records describe swimming competitions in 36 B. organized by emperor Suigui (spelling unclear), which are the first known swimming races.
For example, in the 16th century, a German court document in the Vechta prohibited the naked public swimming of children.
Leonardo da Vinci made early sketches of lifebelts.
More lifesaving groups were established in 1767 (1768?
) in Amsterdam by the Dutch, 1772 in Copenhagen, and in 1774 by Great Britain.